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Evolving Organic Technology of the Human Eye

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LAST MONTH, IT HAD BEEN NOTIFIED THAT RESEARCHERS AT THE INSTITUTE OF BASIC SCIENCES (IBS) HAD DEVELOPED A “BRAIN ORGANOID CULTURE PLATFORM” THAT IMPLEMENTED AN ENVIRONMENT SIMILAR TO THE REAL HUMAN BRAIN. “ORGANOID” REFERS TO A “LONG TERM ANALOGUE” THAT INDUCES STEM CELLS TO A SPECIFIC BODY ORGAN AND REPRODUCES THEM IN A SIMILAR WAY TO ORGANS IN VITRO. ORGANIC TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRUGS, DISEASE TREATMENT AND FACTORY DEVELOPMENT. IN 2019, THERE WERE REPORTS THAT IN THE CASE OF BRAIN ORGANOIDS, THE WAVES CORRESPONDING TO THE PRE-CONSCIOUSNESS STAGE HAD REACHED THE LEVEL AT WHICH WAVE LENGTHS WERE DETECTED WHEN CREATING A SO-CALLED “MINI-BRAIN” WHICH WAS CALLED VERY SMALL BRAIN. THE BRAIN ORGANOID PLATFORM IS NOT ONLY MATURE NEAR THE BRAIN LEVEL OF THE NEWBORN BUT MORE THAN DOUBLE THE SIZE OF THE PREVIOUS BABY.

This time, the news is that brain organoids have created snow. A recent experimental paper published on cell stem cells reported that after converting human stem cells into precursor stages of prefrontal neurons in our brain, these cells formed a round and hollow cup-like structure similar to two eyes. the organoids also became electrically activated when exposed to light, according to the report.

The eye is an important organ in the body that we need to process light and visual information. The very complex and sophisticated process of ocular development in our body has been studied until now, for example, during the 19th century it was discovered that the retina develops and protrudes from the cerebral side of the frontal lobe. “

Two studies published in 2011 and 2012 showed that retinal formation can be induced in human and rat stem cells, respectively. However, in the process of embryo development, as ocular vesicles develop in the cerebellum of the frontal lobe, the researchers of this published study wanted to reproduce this process using organoids instead of cells.

Eye

Ocular vesicles develop in brain organoids.

First, the researchers who modified the existing protocol to induce brain organoids added retinic acid, which is essential for eye development. it induced the development of the eye into organoids, and in fact, after 30 days, the researchers observed the formation of a colored structure in the area corresponding to the eye. These ocular structures were symmetrically two, which were identified in 86 of the 95 organoids, the researchers added.

And by immunostaining, a method of detecting proteins by antibodies, it was confirmed that there are proteins present in the precursor cells of the eye, such as RAX or FOXG1, in the eye area. RNA sequence analysis to identify genes transcribed with RNA before the proteins were produced also confirmed genes related to ocular development and retinal regeneration.

in the snow patches appear the small organs of the eyes.

The posterior brain organoids gradually developed ocular vesicles and cells related to the eyes, such as the retina, began to be observed. After 60 days, noticeable structures began to appear in the ocular vesicles of the brain. Using immunofluorescence staining, the researchers confirmed the presence of organelles in our eyes, such as early-stage crystals and corneal cell layers, in the ocular vesicle structure of organoids. It was also confirmed that there was a signaling reaction in the organoid by measuring the signaling of the retina and “electroretinography” that measures the signaling of the retina, or by exposing it to light stress with different intensities and measuring its response.

The study used brain organoids to develop two symmetrical, round, hollow eyes, and experimentally confirmed that their cellular characteristics and functions were similar to real eyes. however, it has not reproduced a very mature stage of the retina, and although the technologies that can continuously develop and maintain organoids after 60 days shown in the study should be tested in the future, this study is being evaluated as a study pioneer who has demonstrated the possibility of brain organoids being used as models to study studies related to the eyes, especially diseases related to the retina.



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